9 Ağustos 2016 Salı

Olimpiyat Oyunları ve Türkiye


MÖ 8. ve 4. yüzyıllar arasında Zeus onuruna düzenlenen Antik Yunan medeniyetindeki Olimpiyatlardan esinlenerek Fransız eğitimci ve tarihçi Baron Pierre De Coubertin’in 1894’te kurduğu Uluslararası Olimpiyat Komitesi’nin önderliğinde yeniden 1896 yılında Atina’da düzenlenmeye başlayan Olimpiyat Oyunları’nın 31.’si, geçtiğimiz gün Brezilya'nın Rio de Janeiro kentinden muhteşem bir açılış töreni ile başladı. Her dört yılda bir düzenlenen ve dünyanın en büyük spor organizasyonu niteliğindeki Olimpiyat Oyunları, ekonomi ve kültür açısından da çok önemli bir nitelik taşımaktadır. Bu yazıda Olimpiyatlar’ın tarihçesinden ve Türkiye’nin Olimpiyat geçmişinden söz edeceğim.

Olimpiyat Oyunları açılış törenlerinden görüntüler

1896’da ilk kez Yunanistan’da Atina’da düzenlenen Olimpiyatlar, o tarihten itibaren II. Dünya Savaşı haricinde her dört yılda bir istisnasız yapılmış ve şu şehirlerde ve ülkelerde düzenlenmiştir;
1900 – Paris, Fransa
1904 – St. Louis, ABD
1908 – Londra, İngiltere
1912 – Stokholm, İsveç
1916 – Berlin, Almanya
1920 – Antwerp, Belçika
1924 – Paris, Fransa
1928 – Amsterdam, Hollanda
1932 – Los Angeles, ABD
1936 – Berlin, Almanya
1940 – Yapılamadı
1944 – Yapılamadı
1948 – Londra, İngiltere
1952 – Helsinki, Finlandiya
1956 – Melbourne, Avustralya ve Stokholm, İsveç
1960 – Roma, İtalya
1964 – Tokyo, Japonya
1968 – Mexico City, Meksika
1972 – Münih, Almanya
1976 – Montreal, Kanada
1980 – Moskova, SSCB (Rusya)
1984 – Los Angeles, ABD
1988 – Seul, Güney Kore
1992 – Barcelona, İspanya
1996 – Atlanta, ABD
2000 – Sidney, Avustralya
2004 – Atina, Yunanistan
2008 – Pekin, Çin
2012 – Londra, İngiltere
2016 – Rio de Janeiro, Brezilya.

Görüldüğü üzere şimdiye dek 31 kere düzenlenen ancak 29 defa yapılabilen (bir tanesi iki ülkede) Olimpiyat Oyunları’na ABD 4, İngiltere 3, Almanya 3, Fransa 2, Yunanistan 2, İsveç 2, Avustralya 2, Belçika 1, Hollanda 1, Finlandiya 1, İtalya 1, Japonya 1, Meksika 1, Kanada 1, Rusya 1, Güney Kore 1, İspanya 1, Çin 1 ve Brezilya 1 defa ev sahipliği yapmıştır. 2020 yılında, Japonya, Olimpiyat Oyunları'na ikinci defa ev sahipliği yapacaktır. Lakin geçtiğimiz yıllarda Türkiye Cumhurbaşkanı Recep Tayyip Erdoğan’ın da işaret ettiği üzere, Olimpiyatlar henüz Müslüman nüfusu yoğun bir ülkede hiç düzenlenmemiştir. Bu nedenle, Türkiye’nin ilerleyen yıllarda Olimpiyat Oyunları'na ev sahipliği yapmak konusunda büyük şansı bulunmaktadır. Bunun için, Türkiye'nin çok iyi lobi faaliyetleri göstermesi ve spor altyapısını tamamlaması gerekmektedir. Ayrıca sportif anlamda da Türkiye'nin daha saygın ve başarılı bir konuma ulaşması, Olimpiyat Oyunları'na ev sahipliği yapma konusunda önemli bir avantaj olacaktır. Lakin unutulmaması gereken bir konu da, iyi planlama yapılmaması durumunda, Olimpiyatlara ev sahipliği yapmanın bir avantajdan çok ekonomik felakete dönüşme riskidir. Nitekim Brezilya, 2016 Rio de Janerio Olimpiyat Oyunları'na ev sahipliği yapmasına ve bu yolla önemli bir kültürel kazanım elde etmesine karşın, ekonomik anlamda çok zor bir dönemden geçmektedir.

Olimpiyat Oyunları bayrağı

Olimpiyat Oyunları denince akla gelen önemli bir konu, 1912 yılında 5 kıtadan da sporcunun katıldığı ilk Olimpiyatların ardından 1914’te kabul edilen ve dünyadaki 5 kıtayı sembolize eden Olimpiyat Oyunları bayrağıdır. Olimpiyat Oyunları’nın sloganı ise “Daha hızlı, Daha yüksek, Daha güçlü” anlamına gelen “Citius, Altius, Fortius” sözüdür. Olimpiyat Oyunları’nın klasikleşmiş bir unsuru da, özellikle son 30 yılda büyük  ve masraflı şovların sergilendiği açılış ve kapanış törenleridir. Ayrıca 1968’den beri Olimpiyat Oyunları için bir maskot da belirlenmektedir.

Olimpiyat Oyunları’nın tarihine zaman zaman siyaset de damgasını vurmuştur. Örneğin SSCB’nin Afganistan’ı işgal etmesinin ardından Soğuk Savaş’ın doruk noktasına çıktığı dönemlerden olan 1980’lerin başında düzenlenen iki Olimpiyat Oyunları'nda, çeşitli boykot vakaları yaşanmıştır. 1980 Moskova Olimpiyatları’na, ABD’nin liderliğinde 64 ülke katılmamıştır. 1984 Los Angeles Olimpiyatları’na ise, Rusya’nın girişimleriyle 13 ülke iştirak etmemiştir. 1988 Seul Olimpiyatları’na Kuzey Kore de katılım göstermemiştir. 1972 Münih Olimpiyatları’nda Filistin sorununu dünya kamuoyunda gündeme getirmek isteyen Kara Eylül örgütü üyesi Filistinli teröristler, 11 İsrailli sporcuyu öldürmüş ve Olimpiyat Oyunları'nı kana bulamıştır. 1936 yılında Nazi Almanya’sında düzenlenen Olimpiyat Oyunları’nda ise, Afrikalı Amerikalı atlet Jesse Owens’ın 4 altın madalya kazanması, beyaz ırkın üstünlüğüne inanan Nazi lideri Adolf Hitler’i çileden çıkarmış ve dünya kamuoyunun gündemine oturmuştur. 1968 Meksika Olimpiyatları’nda yine zenci sivil hareketlerine katılmış ABD’li iki atlet Tommie Smith ve John Carlos’un direniş selamları da, uzun yıllar unutulmayacak siyasi bir hareket olarak tarihe geçmiştir.

Tommie Smith & John Carlos

Olimpiyat Oyunları madalya sıralamasında ABD’nin toplamda büyük üstünlüğü bulunurken, ABD’yi SSCB dönemi de dahil edilirse Rusya, sonrasında da İngiltere izlemektedir. Son yıllarda Çin Halk Cumhuriyeti’nin hızlı yükselişi dikkat çekicidir. İlk kez 1908 yılında Olimpiyatlara katılan Türkiye ise, ilk madalyasını 1936 Olimpiyatları’nda  “Mersinli” lakabıyla anılan Ahmet Kireççi’nin serbest güreşte 3. olarak bronz madalyası ile almıştır. Aynı yıl 61 kiloda güreşen Yaşar Erkan, Türkiye’ye Olimpiyatlar tarihindeki ilk altın madalyasını getirmiştir. Türkiye'nin şimdiye kadar 38 Olimpiyat altın madalyası bulunmaktadır.

Yaşar Erkan

2. Dünya Savaşı’ndan sonra yapılan 1948 Londra Olimpiyatları’nda Türk sporcuları oldukça başarılı olmuş, serbest ve grekoromen güreşte 6 altın, 4 gümüş ve 1 bronz, atletizmde de üç adım atlamada Ruhi Sarıalp ile 1 bronz olmak üzere toplam 12 madalya alarak madalya tablosunda 7. sırada yer almıştır. Ruhi Sarıalp’in aldığı bu madalya, 2004 Atina Olimpiyatları’nda Eşref Apak’ın çekiç atmada aldığı bronz madalyaya kadar atletizmde Türkiye’nin tek madalyası olarak kalmıştır. Türkiye’nin madalya grafiği incelendiğinde, Fransızların ünlü “etre fort comme un Turc" (Türk gibi kuvvetli olmak) sözünü hatırlatırcasına, güreş ve daha arka planda da olsa halter branşlarında başarılı olduğumuz görülmektedir. Olimpiyatlarda kazandığımız toplam 38 altın madalyamızın 28’i serbest ve grekoromen güreşten, 8 tanesi halterden, 1 tanesi tekvandodan, 1 tanesi ise judodan gelmiştir. "Cep Herkülü" lakaplı efsanevi halterci Naim Süleymanoğlu, 1988, 1992 ve 1996 Olimpiyatları’nda üstüste 3 defa altın madalya kazanarak gerçek bir Türk spor efsanesi olmuştur.

Naim Süleymanoğlu

Halil Mutlu da, 1996, 2000 ve 2004 yıllarında üstüste 3 defa altın madalya alarak Süleymanoğlu’nun başarısını tekrar etmiştir. Haltercilerimiz Süleymanoğlu ve Mutlu dışında en başarılı sporcularımız, 2’şer altın madalya kazanan güreşçilerimiz Mustafa Dağıstanlı, Mithat Bayrak ve Hamza Yerlikaya ve 1 altın, 1 gümüş ve 1 bronz madalya kazanan güreşçimiz Hamit Kaplan’dır. Olimpiyat tarihimizdeki toplam 24 gümüş madalyanın 16’sı serbest ve grekoromen güreş, 3 tanesi tekvando, 3 tanesi atletizm ve 2 tanesi boks dalından alınmıştır. Toplam 24 bronz madalyamızın 14 tanesi serbest ve grekoromen güreşten, 3 tanesi bokstan, 2 tanesi atletizmden, 2 tanesi tekvandodan, 2 tanesi halterden ve 1 tanesi judodan alınmıştır. 2004 yılında Atina Olimpiyatları’nda sporcumuz Nurcan Taylan, halter branşında altın madalya kazanarak, Türkiye’ye altın madalya kazandıran ilk kadın sporcu olmuştur. Son organizasyon olan 2012 Londra Olimpiyatları'nda ise, Türkiye, toplam 4 madalya (Tekvando-Servet Tazegül-altın, Atletizm-Gamze Bulut-altın, Tekvando-Nur Tatar-gümüş, Güreş-Rıza Kayaalp-bronz) kazanabilmiştir.

2016 Olimpiyatları’nda da, Türk sporculardan yeni madalyalar beklenmektedir. Daha önemli bir gelişme ise, ilerleyen yıllarda Olimpiyat Oyunları'na ev sahipliği yapma hakkının kazanılması olacaktır.

Yrd. Doç. Dr. Ozan ÖRMECİ

6 Ağustos 2016 Cumartesi

Jazz and Politics


 “Jazz is about freedom within discipline. Usually a dictatorship like in Russia and Germany will prevent jazz from being played because it just seemed to represent freedom, democracy and the United States.” - Dave Brubeck[1]

Jazz: A Music Genre with a Political Background
Jazz was born as a music genre in the early 20th century in the United States.[2] Jazz is music is often associated with African Americans who were then not accepted as first-class citizens in the U.S. as well as in many European countries. Jazz, in a sense represented the repressed political and socioeconomic status and pains of African Americans[3], who had to resist and fight back still many decades to come in order to reach equal status with white people though the slavery was already abolished in 1865. Thus, jazz music is already a political music wave from its birth; it was the music of the oppressed, but strangely enough, it became the favorite music genre of the riches of Western societies, as well as intellectuals, in other words the music of the elite, starting from the 1940s. Jazz reflected the pains and stories of African Americans and in time, it became an important cultural aspect of the United States. Jazz became popular in the U.S. first time in 1917, with the recordings of Dixieland Jazz Band.

Dixieland Jazz Band Barnyard Blues – 1917 Leo Feist, New York

Etymology
Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines jazz as “a type of American music with lively rhythms and melodies that are often made up by musicians as they play”.[4] According to Wikipedia, the question of the origin of the word jazz has resulted in considerable research, and its history is well documented. It is believed to be related to jasm, a slang term dating back to 1860 meaning “pep, energy”.[5] The earliest written record of the word is in a 1912 article in the Los Angeles Times, in which a minor league baseball pitcher described a pitch, which he called a jazz ball “because it wobbles and you simply can’t do anything with it”.[6] The first use of the word in relation to music on the other hand is seen in 1915 in a Chicago Daily Tribune article.[7] Its first documented use in a musical context in New Orleans was in a November 14, 1916 Times-Picayune article about “jas bands”.[8] In time, jazz was approved as a universal word (term) for making reference to this new type of music that was born in America. In nearly all popular languages, the term “jazz” is used for the same meaning; in Turkish also the word “caz” represents the jazz music.

Jazz: History and Characteristics
Jazz is historically divided into two main categories; gospel jazz and blues.[9] The first one, gospel jazz, is derived out of African American churches in the U.S. where many talented artists and singers were raised as part of church choirs by singing gospel songs before singing jazz. Gospel jazz, thus, carries strong influence from gospel music and Christianity (Protestantism especially). The second one, blues, on the other hand, is born in New Orleans and influenced from African American artists’ new music style. Especially, “ragtime” style, first implemented by Scott Joplin, had an important effect over the development of blues. Later, with the effect of European harmonies, jazz was born in the 1930s during the “swing” era with unforgettable names including Benny Goodman, Louis Armstrong and Fats Miller Swind.[10]

In addition, jazz is often defined as “free music” since it is based on improvisation skills and contains larger freedoms for different harmonic styles.[11] According to jazz critic Nat Hentoff, the most important characteristics of jazz music are “pulsating rhythms, sense of improvisation, a special technique of vocalized instrument and polyrhythm”.[12] Kahyaoğlu on the other hand thinks that, jazz is open to experiments ad improvisation thanks to its nature.[13] The centrality of improvisation in jazz, in fact, comes from blues.[14] Keseroğlu divides jazz history into 10 categories[15];
  • 1890-1900: Ragtime style
  • 1900-1910: New Orleans style
  • 1910-1920: Dixieland style
  • 1920-1930: Chicago style
  • 1930-1940: Swing style
  • 1940-1950: Bebop style
  • 1950-1960: Cool jazz and Hard Bop style
  • 1960-1970: Free Jazz style
  • 1970-1980: Electric Jazz style
  • 1980-1990: New styles.
Jazz music is made mostly by instruments including trumpet, trombone, clarinet, saxophone, piano, keyboard, synthesizer, guitar, bass guitar, drum, percussion and violin. Louis Armstrong, Duke Ellington, Charlie Bannet, Benny Carter, Benny Goodman, Glenn Miller, Artie Shaw, Bill Evans, Dave Brubeck, Chick Korea, Bessie Smith, Miles Davis, Frank Sinatra, John McLaughlin and Norah Jones most popular jazz artists in the world. In Turkey, there are important jazz musicians as well such as Okay Temiz, İlhan Erşahin, Birsen Tezer, Nükhet Ruacan, Kerem Görsev, Tuna Ötenel and Jülide Özçelik.

The first widespread popularity of jazz took place in the 1920s, especially after the Prohibition. Due to Volstead Law and Prohibition, alcoholic drinks were forbidden in the U.S. then and people had to meet in illegal speakeasies to drink alcohol. Speakeasies were also the centers of jazz music since many young and talented African American artists were performing in these clubs. At those years, jazz had a very negative reputation for being an immoral and degenerate; threatening the already existing values of the American society. For instance, Professor Henry van Dyke of Princeton University wrote: “...It is not music at all. It’s merely an irritation of the nerves of hearing, a sensual teasing of the strings of physical passion.” for jazz.[16] Since these clubs and alcohol were associated with mafia and crime during these years, jazz was not very respected among the white American conservative elite.

Glenn Miller: A concrete example showing that jazz was (is) not only for African Americans

In the 1930s, thanks to swing big bands, jazz became a more popular music genre and began to have fans from white Americans as well. Key figures in developing the “big” jazz band included bandleaders and arrangers Count Basie, Cab Calloway, Jimmy and Tommy Dorsey, Duke Ellington, Benny Goodman, Fletcher Henderson, Earl Hines, Glenn Miller, Artie Shaw, Harry James and Jimmie Lunceford. Swing was also a dance music; so, jazz entered from speakeasies to dance clubs, hotels and concert halls first time in the 1930s. In the 1930s, jazz spread to Europe as well. In France and United Kingdom, European jazz artists emerged and contributed a lot to the development of American jazz. Many of the jazz standards were composed in the 1930s.[17]

In the 1940s, thanks to amazing artists such as Duke Ellington and Dizzy Gillespie and the emergence of bebop style, jazz music opened a new page and continued to develop. Ellington called his music as “American music” rather than jazz. Most of today’s jazz standards in fact were produced in the 1940s. Thus, 1940s were the rising years of the jazz music. It coincided with the end of Second World War and the emerging optimistic and positive mood of European and American people after terrible devastating years of the World War.

Throughout the 1950s, jazz continued to became more popular and spread to the whole world especially in the Western bloc. Many important composers and singers came out and became popular in the 1950s. Golden years of the jazz coincided with the rise of American power throughout the world with the emergence of NATO and the start of American economic and cultural programs. Many of the jazz classics were created in the 1950s. The spread of democracy strengthened the spread of jazz since they were both based on the idea and notion of freedom (improvisation in music and liberties in politics). Thus, 1950s were the golden years of the jazz music and maybe the only decade when it became the most popular music genre in USA. During the 1950s, the jazz also entered into many countries (e.g. Turkey) that became U.S. ally during the Cold War conditions due to rising Soviet expansionism danger. 

In the 1960s and 1970s, the jazz music was enriched due to new styles emerging in the rest of the world such as Afro-Cuban jazz, Latin jazz, Brazilian jazz etc. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the hybrid form of jazz-rock fusion was also developed thanks to the pioneering efforts of some musicians such as Miles Davis. Jazz began to be overshadowed by emerging music types such as rock & roll, but continued to develop. In 1987, the United States House of Representatives and Senate passed a bill proposed by Democratic Representative John Conyers Jr. to define jazz as a unique form of American music, stating: “...that jazz is hereby designated as a rare and valuable national American treasure to which we should devote our attention, support and resources to make certain it is preserved, understood and promulgated.”[18]

In the 1980s, the jazz began to be forgotten by the emergence of disco and pop music but efforts for the resurgence of traditionalism also began in the U.S. Starting from the 1980s, jazz became the favorite music of enlightened minorities in many societies. It continued to develop due to music festivals and jazz organizations but never became a popular music genre as in the 1940s and 50s.

Jazz and Women
Jazz is a political music by its nature and represents the response of the gifted oppressed groups, but its relation to women is also highly political. Women jazz performers and composers such as Billie Holiday, Ella Fitzgerald, Dinah Washington, Ethel Waters, Betty Carter, Adelaide Hall, Abbey Lincoln, Sarah Vaughan and Anita O’Day have contributed a lot to the development and popularity of this music genre throughout the jazz history. While women such as are famous for their jazz singing, women have achieved much less recognition for their contributions as composers, bandleaders, and instrumental performers. In none of the other music genres women played such an important role as in the jazz.

Billie Holiday

Margaret Howze also pointed out the unique and pioneering role of women in jazz music. Other than well-known performers (singers), according to Howze, there are many unknown female jazz heroes (instrumentalists and composers) in jazz history. Moreover, jazz was a liberating music in terms of women rights. Musicologist Ingrid Monson pointed out that the piano, one of the earliest instruments that women played in jazz, allowed female artists a degree of social acceptance.[19] Trumpeter Dolly Jones, later known as Dolly Hutchinson, was one of the earliest jazz women to record. Valaida Snow, once known as “the Queen of the Trumpet” was another female pioneer of the trumpet and her playing was often compared to that of the great Louis Armstrong. In the 1920s and '30s, there were a growing number of women jazz pianists – Sweet Emma Barrett, Billie Pierce, Jeanette Kimball and Lovie Austin among them. The most famous to emerge from that era was the legendary Mary Lou Williams.[20]

Ella Fitzgerald

Howze thinks that, nearly a century after the birth of jazz and the rise of the women’s rights movement, female jazz artists are still likely to get skeptical looks if they're playing instruments like the saxophone, the trumpet, or the drums.[21] However, she adds that “an increasing number of formal jazz schools like Berklee College of Music and the New School in Manhattan, opportunities for female jazz artists are also on the rise.”[22] The schools show increased enrollments from women in jazz studies, proving once again that jazz is no longer “the boy’s club”. Considering the help of jazz in the improvement of the socioeconomic status of African American women, one can also claim that jazz is the music of women similar to many other oppressed groups.

Theodor Adorno and Criticism of Jazz
Theodor Ludwig Wiesengrund Adorno (1903-1969) was a German sociologist, philosopher, musicologist and composer. He was a member of the Frankfurt School along with Max Horkheimer, Walter Benjamin, Herbert Marcuse, Jürgen Habermas and many others. Theodor Adorno was no doubt one of the most important philosophers of the 20th century. Affected by Walter Benjamin’s application of Karl Marx’s thought, he argued that capitalism fed people with the products of a culture industry (the opposite of true art) to keep them passively satisfied and politically apathetic. Adorno thought that the capitalist system had not become close to collapse, as the famous German philosopher Karl Marx had predicted. Instead, he saw that capitalism had seemingly become more powerful and widespread. He was pretty negative about our chances of breaking out of this system. Adorno mostly dealt with the cultural aspects (superstructure) of capitalism. Adorno thought that in modern capitalist societies there is an economy of cultural goods which has a specific logic. He believed that cultural needs are the product of education and social origin. Thus, social hierarchy among consumers reflects itself on the socially recognized hierarchy of arts. Thus, arts in a sense function as “markers of class”. Education and social class determines a person’s tastes and develops his/her competence for different kind of arts. That is why, a work of art has meaning and interest only for someone who possesses the cultural competence, that is, the code, into which is encoded. Adorno identified popular culture as the reason for people’s passive satisfaction and lack of interest in overthrowing the capitalist system. He claimed that the capitalist system brings problems such as taking away individual “true” needs like freedom, full expression of human potential and creativity, genuine creative happiness and replacing them with false ones like commodity fetishism, popular culture and standardization. Adorno also discussed “use value” and “exchange value”. Use value refers to the contingent qualities of a thing that are useful to human beings. Exchange value on the other hand refers to the popularity, scarcity and the price of a thing. For example, water’s use value is very high because it is a vital drink but its exchange value is very low because it is not scarce. In contrast, a diamond is very low in use value but its exchange value is enormous because it is very scarce.[23]

Theodor Adorno

Following this logic, Adorno asserts that the popular music genre that emerged simultaneously with the rise of bourgeoisie, the classical music represents the true art. Classical music is planned and based on the great artistic talents of immortal European composers like Mozart, Beethoven, Vivaldi, Chopin etc. Since there was not a developed music industry in the 18th and 19th century Europe, in classical music use value (in this case the quality of the music) mattered first. Classical music was developed and existed in bourgeois houses and concert halls. This meant high-quality music for Adorno.[24] Adorno believed, contrary to classical music, jazz music and other genres of American popular music represent the industrialized form of art, where the exchange value dominates over the use value. This meant the imposition of certain tastes over people by the industry in accordance with the preferences of the sovereign classes. That is why; jazz was an industrial music for Adorno and represented the low-quality. Adorno did not like the jazz music and never considered it as the true symbol of African Americans to slavery. Instead, for him, jazz was the half-sad complaint of African Americans against white domination.[25] Adorno’s writings on jazz remain at best a puzzle and to some jazz historians, they merely contain “some of the stupidest pages ever written about jazz” and are generally dismissed without further comment”.[26]

Jazz during the Cold War                                               
Jazz was also instrumentalized and used by the United States during the Cold War in order to reach different countries and to expand American cultural influence over other societies. For instance, one of greatest names of jazz history and a prominent defender of American liberalism, Dave Brubeck, together with his wife Iola Brubeck started the project of “The Real Ambassadors” in the late 1950s and early 1960s.[27] The Real Ambassadors was born of Dave and Louis Armstrong’s shared belief in equality for all and the utter refusal to tolerate racial discrimination in their own lives. Conceived in 1956, “The Real Ambassadors” took its first steps in 1961, when Dave, Louis and their bands came together with the top jazz vocal group of all time, Lambert, Hendricks and Ross to record the score. It was performed only once in concert version by Dave, Louis and the album cast, at the 1962 Monterey Jazz Festival and was a smash hit.[28] The project addressed the U.S. Civil Rights movement, the music business, America’s place in the world during the Cold War, the nature of God, and a number of other themes. It was set in a fictional African nation called Talgalla and its central character was based on Armstrong and his time as a jazz ambassador.[29] In writing this work, the Brubecks drew upon experiences they and their friends and colleagues had touring various parts of the world on behalf of the U.S. State Department. The Brubecks and Armstrong (among many other musicians such as Dizzy Gillespie, Benny Goodman and Duke Ellington) were part of a campaign by the State Department to spread American culture and music around the world during the Cold War, especially into countries whose allegiances were not well defined or that were perceived as being at risk of aligning with the Soviet Union. Fittingly, “The Real Ambassadors” was about the important role that musicians play as unofficial ambassadors for their countries. Moreover, though intended as a color-blind promotion of democracy, this unique Cold War strategy unintentionally demonstrated the essential role of African Americans in U.S. national culture.[30]

The Real Ambassadors

Tony Shaw, in his book Hollywood’s Cold War (2007)[31], analyzes how Hollywood was instrumentalized by US governments during the Cold War (1945-1990) against the USSR and communism. Shaw thinks that successive American governments thought of winning the hearts and minds of people around the world in order to get more support to USA against the communist ideals of Soviet Russia.[32] Fred Astaire, being light-hearted, nimble-witted, small of voice and light of foot, became the leading star of the era[33], alongside with the jazz music which was thought to be a perfect representation of American liberalism that is based on individual freedoms and free-market economics.[34] Thus, jazz is also used for the spread of American soft power and culture but was welcomed by societies who value art more than politics; because art unified people, whereas politics made them enemy to each other. Jazz was a perfect choice for the U.S.; because unlike the planned Marxist-based command economy of the Soviet Russia, it was based on improvisation which might be resembled to free enterprise and free-market in economic theory.

The Real Ambassadors project was a great success

Conclusion
Jazz music is an American born music type that is political by its very first day. Jazz represented the “chagrin” using French term, pains of disadvantaged groups, most notably African Americans. It also helped African American women and women in general to have a better socioeconomic status and respect. The great success of jazz music directed successive American governments to take advantage of the jazz and to promote it as a way to express American liberalism.

Dr. Ozan ÖRMECİ

BIBLIOGRAPHY
[1] Here, the reference is made to Nazi Germany (Hitler’s Third Reich) and Soviet Russia (Stalin’s totalitarian Russia), not to today’s Germany or Russian Federation.
[2] For 20 best books about jazz, see; http://www.udiscovermusic.com/20-great-books-about-jazz.
[3] Çiğdem Eda Angı (2013), “Müzik Kavramı ve Türkiye’de Dinlenen Bazı Müzik Türleri”, İdil Dergisi, 2 (10), p. 65.
[4] “Jazz”, Merriam-Webster Dictionary, Date of Accession: 05.08.2016 from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/jazz.
[5] “Jazz”, Wikipedia, Date of Accession: 05.08.2016 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jazz.
[6] “The baseball origin of ‘jazz””, Oxford Dictionaries, Date of Accession: 06.08.2016 from http://blog.oxforddictionaries.com/2015/04/jazz-baseball/.
[7] “Jazz”, Wikipedia, Date of Accession: 05.08.2016 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jazz.
[8] Ben Zimmer (2009), “‘Jazz’: A Tale of Three Cities”, Visual Thesaurus, Date of Accession: 05.08.2016 from http://www.visualthesaurus.com/cm/wordroutes/jazz-a-tale-of-three-cities/.
[9] Çiğdem Eda Angı (2013), “Müzik Kavramı ve Türkiye’de Dinlenen Bazı Müzik Türleri”, İdil Dergisi, 2 (10), p. 65.
[10] Çiğdem Eda Angı (2013), “Müzik Kavramı ve Türkiye’de Dinlenen Bazı Müzik Türleri”, İdil Dergisi, 2 (10), p. 65.
[11] M. Devrim Babacan (2013), “Caz Teorisi Kitaplarının Karşılaştırmalı İncelenmesi”, Eğitim ve Öğretim Araştırmaları Dergisi, Vol. 2, No: 3, August 2013, p. 234.
[12] Çiğdem Eda Angı (2013), “Müzik Kavramı ve Türkiye’de Dinlenen Bazı Müzik Türleri”, İdil Dergisi, 2 (10), p. 66.
[13] ibid.
[14] Leonard Bernstein tried to explain jazz during the Cold War. See; Bernstein, Leonard (1956), “What is Jazz?”, LP Spoken Word Educational, Date of Accession: 18.06.2016 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V3DnZ6rG3vI.
[15] Çiğdem Eda Angı (2013), “Müzik Kavramı ve Türkiye’de Dinlenen Bazı Müzik Türleri”, İdil Dergisi, 2 (10), p. 67.
[16] “Jazz”, Wikipedia, Date of Accession: 06.08.2016 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jazz.
[17] For a list of jazz standards, see; http://www.jazzstandards.com/compositions/.
[18] “Jazz”, Wikipedia, Date of Accession: 06.08.2016 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jazz.
[19] Margaret Howze (2016), “Jazz Profiles from NPR Women In Jazz, Part 1”, NPR, Date of Accession: 06.08.2016 from http://www.npr.org/programs/jazzprofiles/archive/women_1.html.
[20] ibid.
[21] Margaret Howze (2016), “Jazz Profiles from NPR Women In Jazz, Part 2”, NPR, Date of Accession: 06.08.2016 from http://www.npr.org/programs/jazzprofiles/archive/women_2.html.
[22] ibid.
[23] Taken from Örmeci, Ozan (2010), “The Culture Industry and the Critic of Popular Culture by Theodor Adorno”, Ozan Örmeci Makaleler, Date of Accession: 06.08.2016 from http://ydemokrat.blogspot.com.tr/2010/10/culture-industry-and-critic-of-popular.html.
[24] Örmeci, Ozan (2010), “Theodor Adorno”, Ozan Örmeci Makaleler, Date of Accession: 06.08.2016 from http://ydemokrat.blogspot.com.tr/2010/08/theodor-adorno.html.
[25] Güriz, Haluk (2014), “Adorno ve Frankfurt Okulu”, Haluk Güriz’in Yazıhanesi, Date of Accession: 18.06.2016 from https://halukguriz.wordpress.com/2014/01/08/adorno-ve-frankfurt-okulu/.
[26] See; Robinson, J. Bradford (1994), “The Jazz Essays of Theodor Adorno: Some Thoughts on Jazz Reception in Weimar Germany”, Popular Music, Vol. 13, No: 1 (Jan. 1994), pp. 1-25.
[27] For a website on this project, see; http://www.therealambassadors.com/.
[28] “The Beginning – Monterey Jazz Festival 1962”, Date of Accession: 06.08.2016 from http://www.therealambassadors.com/2.htm.
[29] “The Real Ambassadors”, Wikipedia, Date of Accession: 06.08.2016 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Real_Ambassadors.
[30] For a book on the project, see; Penny M. Von Eschen (2006), Satchmo Blows Up the World: Jazz Ambassadors Play the Cold War, Harvard University Press.
[31] Shaw, Tony (2007), Hollywood’s Cold War, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, Date of Accession: 18.06.2016 from https://www.academia.edu/6975392/Hollywoods_Cold_War_PDF
[32] Shaw, Tony (2007), Hollywood’s Cold War, p. 3. 
[33] Shaw, Tony (2007), Hollywood’s Cold War, p. 29.
[34] Shaw, Tony (2007), Hollywood’s Cold War, p. 33.

1 Ağustos 2016 Pazartesi

Yeni Makale: "Süleyman Demirel'in Ardından"


Beykent Üniversitesi Siyaset Bilimi ve Kamu Yönetimi (İngilizce) bölümü öğretim üyesi Yrd. Doç. Dr. Ozan Örmeci’nin “Süleyman Demirel’in Ardından” adlı makalesi, Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi‘nin 21. cilt 3 nolu özel sayısında yayınlandı. Aşağıda bu makaleye ulaşabileceğiniz link adresini bulabilirsiniz.

26 Temmuz 2016 Salı

L'Etat D'Urgence et Les Temps Extraordinaires en Turquie


Après le coup d’état raté de 15 juillet, le Président de la République turc Monsieur Recep Tayyip Erdoğan a instauré l’état d’urgence dans le pays pour trois mois.[1] L’état d’urgence a été ratifié par le parlement turc aussi. Maintenant, Monsieur Erdoğan a le pouvoir de diriger le pays avec des décrets sans le contrôle législatif. Cette période peut être considérée comme un exercice en système présidentiel, un nouveau model de gouvernance que Monsieur Erdoğan a toujours voulu. Grâce à ses pouvoirs extraordinaires pendant l’état d’urgence, Monsieur Erdoğan a chassé 50.000 serviteurs de l’état qui ont des liens avec la communauté islamique de Fethullah Gülen, un ordre très fort en Turquie qui a été accusé par Erdoğan et les autres officiels de l’état pour avoir organisé le coup d’état manqué de 15 juillet.[2] De plus, 15 universités, 35 hôpitaux, 1.043 école privés et internats, 1.229 organisations non-gouvernemental et 19 syndicats qui appartenaient à la communauté de Gülen ont été fermé par l’Etat turc.[3] Erdoğan a aussi demandé la rétrocession de Gülen qui vit aux Etats-Unis depuis 1999 de Monsieur Barack Obama, le chef d’Etat des Etats-Unis.

Gülen et Erdoğan étaient des alliés contre l’état kémaliste avant quelques années

Comme la démocratie nécessite le changement des gouvernements par les élections démocratiques, le gouvernement a le droit de défendre lui-même après un attentat de coup d’état. Mais ces mesures extraordinaires ont été prises pendant l’état d’urgence sans avec des décisions législatifs. La communauté de Gülen a déjà déclaré par l’Etat turc et le média turc comme le responsable de coup militaire sans succès. En Turquie, il y a une atmosphère d’horreur maintenant et personne n’interroge les preuves. Je ne sais pas qui a organisé le coup d’état en Turquie, je n’ai pas de sympathie pour le gouvernement ou pour la communauté islamique de Gülen comme un analyste neutre, mais je ne suis pas sur aussi que c’était les Gülenists qui ont organisé l’attentat sans voir les preuves dans un cour juste. L’armée turque est connue avec son identité laïque et moderne et son idéologie de kémalisme, pas avec l’islamisme modérée de la communauté de Gülen. De plus, la Turquie avait des affaires controversées presque la même (Ergenekon et Balyoz) avant quelques années et on a vu que les accusations étaient faibles; donc les accusés sont finalement acquittés. Maintenant, sans avoir un procès de jugement propre et démocratique, je pense qu’on doit être patient avant d’accuser les gens. Mais malheureusement, les chaines de télévision et les journaux en Turquie agissent comme des juges et accusent la communauté de Gülen. Même si les actes de gouvernement ne sont pas ouverts au contrôle législatif pendant l’état d’urgence, les affaires contre l’Etat turc au Cour de Justice Européenne peuvent devenir des problèmes sévères pour la Turquie dans les années prochaines. L’Amnestie Internationale a déjà déclaré que les détenus ont été torturés par la police, une attitude qu’on ne peut jamais approuver même contre les putschistes.[4] En plus, la communauté de Gülen a une réputation assez bien dans le monde entier; pour supporter le dialogue entre les chrétiens et les musulmanes[5] et de dénoncer les groupes islamistes « jihadist » comme l’Etat Islamique.[6] Gülen n’a jamais dit qu’il supporte la loi islamique mais Erdoğan a dit quelque fois pendant sa jeunesse qu’il défend la loi islamique.[7] Mais récemment, Erdoğan a défendu le sécularisme pendant son visite en Egypte et a exprimé que les musulmanes doivent supporter le sécularisme et que le sécularisme n’est pas l’athéisme.[8] En plus, le cas que Monsieur Erdoğan est un politicien élu par le peuple, mais Monsieur Gülen est un homme de dieu qui n’est pas responsable au peuple, fait la situation plus complexe. Selon moi, on doit toujours défendre la démocratie et les droits de l’homme mais pas seulement pour les députés, aussi pour les civiles, les soldats et les communautés islamiques.   

Il y a aussi des problèmes graves pour la démocratie en Turquie après le coup d’état sans succès. Les journalistes opposant au gouvernement islamo-conservateur de Monsieur Erdoğan et son parti l’AKP (Parti de la Justice et du Développement) pensent que le gouvernement peut utiliser cet événement comme une opportunité pour une chasse des sorcières et d’imposer la silence sur tous les groups opposants à son pouvoir.[9] Des mandats d’arrêts délivrés à l’encontre de 42 journalistes confirment mon souci.[10] S’il y a un crime de coup, selon moi, on doit arrêter et accuser les gens qui ont des armes, pas les gens avec des crayons. Mais on a déjà vu que le gouvernement va l’utiliser afin de se débarrasser les Gülenists complètement. Les critiques exprimées même par Soner Cagaptay qui disent que Monsieur Erdoğan et ses alliés peuvent essayer d’installer un système islamiste comme la révolution islamique de l’Iran en 1979.[11] Le coup d’état raté a fait Monsieur Erdoğan un grand héro de démocratie encore une fois et a ouvert la porte pour un régime présidentiel. Les partis d’opposition aussi n’ont pas supporté le coup d’état; le CHP (Parti Républicain du Peuple, le plus grand parti de l’opposition en Turquie) a même organisé un meeting à la place Taksim au cœur d’Istanbul[12], mais c’est toujours Monsieur Erdoğan qui a profit de coup militaire manqué politiquement comme le chef de l’Etat. Erdoğan a même dit que « c’est un cadeau de Dieu pour lui »[13], en signifiant le coup d’état manqué. La presse internationale aussi semble trop suspicieuse des intentions de Monsieur Erdoğan. Par exemple, Le Monde souligne les risques d’autoritarisme avant de célébrer la victoire de la démocratie.[14] Financial Times écrit qu’il y a une risque de la chute institutionnelle en Turquie[15] et Monsieur Johannes Hahn, le commissaire européen à l’élargissement, a dit l’UE observe l’état d’urgence avec inquiétude.[16] Monsieur Hahn a aussi dit que les listes d’arrestations étaient prêt avant l’attentat de coup militaire.[17] Si c’est vrai, ça montre que ce n’est pas seulement un acte pour défendre la démocratie, mais un purge contre les islamistes modérés.

Finalement, je dois dire que, pour moi, le sécularisme est toujours plus préférable contre l’islam modéré, mais si la Turquie va faire la choix entre l’islam modéré et l’islam radical (jihadist) dans le futur, je vais choisir l’islam modéré. Aussi, je préfère que les gouvernements utilisent des méthodes démocratiques au lieu des purges. Comment on doit arranger la place des communautés islamiques et les autres confréries dans une démocratie est un autre sujet de débat. On doit respecter les gens religieux et les communautés islamiques et les autres sectes dans la sphère privée, mais dans la sphère publique, la hiérarchie de l’Etat doit prédominer sur la hiérarchie des sectes.   

Dr. Ozan ÖRMECİ